Enero 30, 2012

Chapter 1: The Human Organism

Human anatomy and physiology is the study of the structure and function of the body.

  • Two basic approaches to the study of anatomy:

1. Systemic anatomy is the study of the body by systems and is the approach taken in this and most other introductory books. 

2. Regional anatomy is the study of organization of the body by areas.

  • Structural and Functional Organization of the human body:

The body can be studied at six structural levels: the chemical, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, and organism.

1. Chemical Level
2. Cell Level
3. Tissue Level
4. Organ Level
5. Organ System Level
6. Organism Level

As you can see, here is a picture of the Levels of Organization of the body.

  • Characteristics of Life
The most important common feature of all organisms is life.

There are essential characteristics of life namely:
1. Organization - is the condition in which the parts of an organism have specific relationships to each other and the parts interact to form specific functions.
2. Metabolism - is the sum of the chemical and physical changes taking place in an organism.
3. Responsiveness - is the ability of an organism to sense changes in its external or internal environment and make the adjustments that help maintain its life.
4. Growth - results in an increase in size of all or part of the organism.
5. Development - includes the changes an organism undergoes through time; it begins with fertilization and ends at death.
6. Reproduction - is the formation of new cells or new organisms.

  • Homeostasis - is the existence and maintenance of a relatively constant environment within the body.

  • Negative Feedback
Negative means that any deviation from the set point is made smaller or is resisted.

  • Positive Feedback
Positive implies that, when a deviation from a normal value occurs, the response of the system is to make that deviation even greater.

  • Anatomical Position
Refers to a person standing erect with the face directed forward, the upper limbs hanging to the sides, and the palms of the hands facing forward.

Here is a video explaining the different directional terms:

  • Body parts and Regions

Go to this link if you want to further familiarize your self to the different body parts.

  • Body Cavities
Click this link to know more about the different body cavities.

  • Serous Membranes
Serous membranes cover the organs of the trunk cavities and line the trunk cavities.

Did you know that?

Serous membranes can become inflated-usually as a result of an infection. 
Pericarditis is inflammation of the pericardium, pleurisy is inflammation of the pleura, and peritonitis is inflammation of the peritoneum.

End of Chapter 1

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