Enero 30, 2012

Chapter 1: The Human Organism


Human anatomy and physiology is the study of the structure and function of the body.






  • Two basic approaches to the study of anatomy:




1. Systemic anatomy is the study of the body by systems and is the approach taken in this and most other introductory books. 




2. Regional anatomy is the study of organization of the body by areas.




  • Structural and Functional Organization of the human body:


The body can be studied at six structural levels: the chemical, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, and organism.

1. Chemical Level
2. Cell Level
3. Tissue Level
4. Organ Level
5. Organ System Level
6. Organism Level




As you can see, here is a picture of the Levels of Organization of the body.





  • Characteristics of Life
The most important common feature of all organisms is life.

There are essential characteristics of life namely:
1. Organization - is the condition in which the parts of an organism have specific relationships to each other and the parts interact to form specific functions.
2. Metabolism - is the sum of the chemical and physical changes taking place in an organism.
3. Responsiveness - is the ability of an organism to sense changes in its external or internal environment and make the adjustments that help maintain its life.
4. Growth - results in an increase in size of all or part of the organism.
5. Development - includes the changes an organism undergoes through time; it begins with fertilization and ends at death.
6. Reproduction - is the formation of new cells or new organisms.






  • Homeostasis - is the existence and maintenance of a relatively constant environment within the body.








  • Negative Feedback
Negative means that any deviation from the set point is made smaller or is resisted.





  • Positive Feedback
Positive implies that, when a deviation from a normal value occurs, the response of the system is to make that deviation even greater.



  • Anatomical Position
Refers to a person standing erect with the face directed forward, the upper limbs hanging to the sides, and the palms of the hands facing forward.

Here is a video explaining the different directional terms:



  • Body parts and Regions




Go to this link if you want to further familiarize your self to the different body parts.



  • Body Cavities
Click this link to know more about the different body cavities.





  • Serous Membranes
Serous membranes cover the organs of the trunk cavities and line the trunk cavities.

Did you know that?

Serous membranes can become inflated-usually as a result of an infection. 
Pericarditis is inflammation of the pericardium, pleurisy is inflammation of the pleura, and peritonitis is inflammation of the peritoneum.




End of Chapter 1












Chapter 2: The Chemical Basis of Life

BASIC CHEMISTRY
    In this section, tells us the chemicals that are present in our body and their relations with one another to make our body function. This is just a review on what we have learned in our Chemistry lesson.


MATTER
     We have already studied during our high school days about matter. MATTER is anything that occupies space and has mass. Mass is the amount of matter in an object.


ELEMENTS and ATOMS
     An element is the simplest type of matter with unique chemical properties while an atom is the smallest particle of an element that has the characteristics of that element.


MOLECULES and COMPOUNDS
     A molecule is formed when two or more atoms chemically combine to form a structure that behaves an independent unit while compound as a substance composed of two or more different types of atoms that are chemically combined.
      A compound is a substance composed of two or more different types of atoms that are chemically combined.
note: Not all molecules are compounds.





    Chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
1. Synthesis
          In synthesis reaction, two or more simple substances combine to form a more complex substance. Two or more reactants yielding one product is another way to identify a synthesis reaction. For example, simple hydrogen gas combined with simple oxygen gas can produce a more complex substance, such as water. Water is removed (dehydration) to form bonds.
A + B -e-n-e-r-g-y-> A---B + water
                                                 
                                                                                                                              


2. Decomposition
          A decomposition reaction is the opposite of a synthesis reaction, where a more complex substance breaks down into its more simple parts.
A---B -----w-a-t-e-r-----> A + B
                                                      


3. Reversible
         In reversible reaction, the product can be changed to reactant.
A + B<--> A--B   




ENERGY and CHEMICAL REACTIONS
     Energy is the capacity to do work. It can be divided into two: POTENTIAL ENERGY and KINETIC ENERGY.


Potential energy is an energy at rest.



Kinetic energy is energy in motion.













Mechanical energy is the sum of kinetic and potential energy. Other forms of energy are chemical energy, heat energy, electric energy, and radiant energy.


Breathing involves mechanical energy.
     The total energy of the universe is constant therefore, energy is neither created nor destroyed.
One type of energy can be changed into another here is an example:

As a moving object slows down and comes to rest, its kinetic energy is converted into heat energy by friction.










ACIDS and BASES 
     An acid is a substance which reacts with a base. It can be identified as tasting sour. It is a proton donor because a hydrogen atom without its electron is a proton, any substance that releases hydrogen ions in water is an acid. Base is a substance that can accept protons or hydrogen ions.
     Acids and bases can be classified as strong or weak. Strong acids or bases disassociate almost completely when dissolved in water. Weak acids or bases only partially disassociate in water.

The picture below is what they call the pH scale, this indicates the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution.
Values less than 7 are acidic (the lower the number, the more acidic). Values greater than 7 are basic (the higher the number, the more basic).



  • Many fluids in humans function within a narrow pH range. An illness occurs when pH changes. Normal blood pH is 7.35 to 7.45. pH greater than 7.5 results to ALKALOSIS while pH lesser than 7.3 results to ACIDOSIS. Each of these can lead to death if not rapidly corrected.



BUFFER
     A buffer is an aqueous solution that has a highly stable pH. If you add acid or base to a buffered solution, its pH will not change significantly. Similarly, adding water to a buffer or allowing water to evaporate will not change the pH of a buffer.







INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
     Inorganic chemistry is mostly concerned with non-carbon-containing substances but does include such carbon-containing substances as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and bicarbonate ion.
     Inorganic substances are small compounds that do not contain carbon and hydrogen. They usually disassociate in water forming ions (electrolytes).


WATER


  • Polar molecule that demonstrates hydrogen bonding.
  • Many solutes are dissolved in our body's water; many ionic compounds disassociate in water.
  • Participate in many chemical reactions such as dehydration (synthesis) and hydrolysis (degradation).
  • Excellent temperature buffer.
  • Excellent cooling mechanism
  • Lubricant

OXYGEN
  • Gas that is transported in the blood.
  • Used to release energy from nutrient molecules.


CARBON DIOXIDE
  • Exhaled during respiration

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
      Organic chemistry studies the properties of a compounds of carbon that are organic.
There are four major groups of organic that are essential to a living organism.
Here are the following:
  1. Carbohydrates
  2. Lipids
  3. Proteins
  4. Nucleic Acid

CLICK the word A-C-T-I-V-I-T-Y below to sharpen your minds.

A-C-T-I-V-I-T-Y


End of Chapter 2




Chapter 3: Cell Structure and their Functions


CHAPTER 3

Cells? OMG! I don’t know where to start because this is the topic I don’t want to be assign to me. My groupmates and I agreed to have a draw lots to be fair. Before I pick a number, I was whispering, “Please, wag cells ang mapunta sa akin.” Guess what? Sadly, I drawn cells. I was trying to trade my topic to my other groupmates but they don’t want it either. Well, I don’t have a choice, so I will just tell the things I learned about it.
Here we go, cells are very small, even our naked eyes can’t see, but by the use of a microscope, it allows us to visualize the cells.





The cell is the smallest unit of life in our bodies and each part of the cell has different functions. Can you believe that humans are composed of 75 trillions of cells? I can’t imagine that that kind of number is inside me. And over 200 different kind of cell are in my body, including nerve cells, skin cells, blood cells, bone cells, fat cells, muscle cells, and many more.
Parts of a cell:
Nucleus – control centre for all activity
Nucleoplasm – protoplasm in the nucleus
Nucleolus – contains more genetic information (RNA)
Cell membrane – outer boundary of the cell
Cell wall – protects and supports the cell
Cytoplasm – cell material outside the nucleus but within the cell membrane
Vacuoles – clear fluid sacs that act as storage areas for food, minerals, and waste
Mitochondria – power house of the cell
Chloroplasts – contains a green pigment known as chlorophyll which is important for photosynthesis
Ribosomes – tiny spherical bodies that help make proteins
Endoplasmic reticulum – connects the nuclear membrane to the cell membrane
Golgi bodies – help package protein
Lysosomes – suicide sacs


For further more explanation, here’s a video that will help you to understand more:


CELL DIVISION
Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells. Cell division is usually a small segment of a larger cell cycle. This type of cell division in eukaryotes is known as mitosis, and leaves the daughter cell capable of dividing again. The corresponding sort of cell division in prokaryotes is known as binary fission. In another type of cell division present only in eukaryotes, called meiosis, a cell is permanently transformed into a gamete and may not divide again until fertilization. Right before the parent cell splits, it undergoes DNA replication.


Here is a video that will help you to further more understand the cell cycle:


Click the link below if you want to test your knowledge about CELLS:

Our human anatomy and physiology (HAP) subject helps me further more understand the human body because back in my 1st year highschool days, I didn’t pay attention to my biology subject which gives the basic knowledge I should know about HAP. Sir Ho is very kind even though sometimes we told him to repeat his explaination because we want to understand his lessons very well, maybe he can see to us that each one of us is very eager to learn HAP. Hope you enjoy and  understand my little knowledge about cells. Well, at first I never thought that I can do this blog but look where I am now, I’m near the ending. Actually, my topic about cells ends here.


End of Chapter 3








Chapter 4: Tissues, Glands, and Membranes

       For me, this is one of the hardest topics to memorize because of the illustration of different types of tissues present in a living organism. I am confused with their structure and their functions in our body.
     In order for you to understand what I am talking about, I’ll show and introduce to you the tissues present in a human body.
     By the way, HISTOLOGY is the study of tissues. And TISSUES are collection of similar cells and the substances surrounding the cells.
    There are four types of tissues:

 Epithelial tissue
  • protects underlying structures
  • acting as barriers
  • permitting the passage of substances
  • secrete substances
a. Simple squamous
b. Simple cuboidal
c. Simple epithelium
d. Pseudostratified columnar
e. Stratified squamous
f. Stratified cuboidal
g. Stratified columnar
h. Transitional

 CLICK the link below to increase your knowledge about tissues.

     I am now than with Epithelial Tissue, our next topic will be about GLANDS. Glands is a secretory structure.
  • Endocrine glands- do not have ducts
  • Exocrine glands- they have ducts
Here is a discussion about endocrine and exocrine glands,a video that will give you the big differences of the two.



     Connective tissue is easier to identify rather than epithelium tissue because most of the tissues has different structures. 

Connective tissue
  • form a layer to separate tissues and organs
  • connect tissues to one another.
  • they store minerals
  • transporting
  • protecting
a. Dense Regular Collagenous
b. Dense Regular Elastic
c. Dense Irregular Collagenous
d. Dense Irregular Elastic
e. Adipose Tissue
f. Reticular Tissue
g. Hyaline Cartilage
h. Fibrocartilage
i. Elastic cartilage
j. Connective tissue: bone
k. Connective tissue: blood
l. Skeletal muscle
m. Cardiac muscle
n. Smooth muscle
o.Neurons and Neuroglia

Here is a link where you can see the pictures of the different tissues.
http://www.wisc-online.com/Objects/ViewObject.aspx?ID=AP14504


 End of Chapter 4

Chapter 5: Integumentary System

CHAPTER V:
INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM





Integument means covering.  The integumentary system can make up as much as 15% of the total body weight. So basically, integumentary system covers our body and largest of the body's organ systems and one of the most important. It is our first protection against bacteria, viruses and other microorganism. Integumentary also includes our hair and nails. Just imagine if we don’t have skin, nails and hair?! We will look like aliens. It also improves our physical looks. People don’t see us through our liver, kidney, lungs etc. but instead on our outer covering. Integumentary also includes our hair and nails.




Here are some of the important terms in integumentary system.
1.    Epidermis- most superficial layer of the skin.
>Cells of the Epidermis:
-Keratinocytes
-Melanocytes
-Merkel Cells
-Langerhans’ Cells

2.    Dermis- this is where the epidermis rests.
3.    Subcutaneous Tissue- Located between the dermis, it contains collagen and elastin fibers.
4.    Hairs- columns of dead, keratinized epithelial cells.
5.    Nails- stratum corneum containing hard keratin.

I will not state more.  These are the basic terms in integumentary system.


Here is an animation video that will help you to further understand integumentary system:



One of the roles of the integumentary system is the elimination of waste. Waste materials can be secreted through the skin to speed elimination, which explains why sometimes people have sweat which smells unusual, as their bodies are expressing waste materials.
Protection can be destroyed too like when the person burns, it is an injury to the tissue caused by heat. It has degrees depending on depths, First, second and third degree burns. This will take a long time to heal. And sadly, your skin will not go back to its normal skin. Vicky Belo is the answer!
PIMPLES! Oh! Every individual hates it! Nobody wants to have a pimple or acne. It is an inflammation of the hair follicles and sebaceous glands. Some are caused by bacterium in the skin. Mostly, this increases during puberty.


Skin Cancer is the most common type of cancer. It is when the skin is exposed to too much UV rays.
One of the scariest thing that will happen to our lives is AGING! Who wants to get old? The fact that you will not be able to do some activities that you can do before, SKIN is one of the problem. As you can see, many celebrities spent most of their money in reconstructing their skin! Especially women, they want to buy all of the anti-aging products that they see on every beauty store or products that are advertised.




Take this quiz! Just for funJ
And learn more!




End of Chapter 5











Chapter 6: Histology and Physiology of Bones


Skeletal system is the biological system providing support in living organisms.


Skin, muscle and bones allow movement. Skin - pliable covering. Muscles do actual moving. Bones give anchor to move against.


The skeleton functions not only as the support for the body but also in haematopoiesis, the manufacture of blood cells that takes place in bone marrow. This is why people who have cancer of the bone marrow almost always die. It is also necessary for protection of vital organs and is needed by the muscles for movement.


Watch this video to get more information about the Skeletal System:







I would also like to share how Calcium Homeostasis works.

PTH increases blood Ca2+ levels by increasing bone breakdown, Ca2+ absorption from the small intestine, and re-absorption of Ca2+ from the urine. Calcotonin decreases  blood Ca2+ by decreasing bone breakdown.

Here is a video to understand more on how it works:


End of Chapter 6




Chapter 7: Anatomy of Bones and Joints


 For the start, here is a link of the Anatomy of Bones and Joints


The Skeletal System is divided into two:

1. The Axial Skeleton

Click this link to proceed to the different bones in the axial area


When we had the knowledge about the name of the bones in the body, we started to joke about it and it is very helpful for us to remember its parts. For example, "Ang sakit ng mandible ko".

2. The Appendicular Skeleton

Click this link to proceed to the different bones in the appendicular area


Here is a video to learn more about the Synovial Joints: 



End of Chapter 7

  • This is not yet the end of our blog so watch out for upcoming updates :)











Chapter 8: Histology and Physiology of Muscles


CHAPTER 8:
HISTOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF MUSCLES


























MUSCLES, MUSCLES, MUSCLES. We all know that this is very important and without these, we cannot move. But what is the physiology behind these muscles?
First, what are the function of the muscular movement:
1.    Body movement
2.    Maintenance of posture
3.    Respiration
4.    Production of body heat
5.    Communication
6.    Constriction of organs and vessels
7.    Heart beat


MUSCLE FIBERS:
1. Muscle fiber is a single skeletal muscle cell
2. Multinucleation
3. Large,elongated, and cylindrically shaped
4. Fibers usually extend entire length of muscle.



Myofibrils

Contractile elements of muscle fiber

Regular arrangement of thick and thin filaments

Thick filaments - myosin (protein)
Thin filaments - actin (protein)

Viewed microscopically myofibril displays alternating dark (the A bands) and light bands (the I bands) giving appearance of striations
Sarcomere

Functional unit of skeletal muscle

Found between two Z lines (connects thin filaments of two adjoining sarcomeres)

Regions of sarcomere
A band
Made up of thick filaments along with portions of thin filaments that overlap on both ends of thick filaments

H zone
Lighter area within middle of A band where thin filaments do not reach

M line
Extends vertically down middle of A band within center of H zone

I band
Consists of remaining portion of thin filaments that do not project into A band




NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION
Site where motor neuron meets the muscle fiber
Separated by gap called the neuromuscular cleft

Motor end plate
Pocket formed around motor neuron by sarcolemma

Acetylcholine is released from the motor neuron
Causes an end-plate potential (EPP)
Depolarization of muscle fiber


CHARACTERISTICS OF SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBER TYPES







MULTIPLE MOTOR UNIT SUMMATION IN A MUSCLE
MULTIPLE-WAVE SUMMATION